To read about working here, see Teaching English in the United Kingdom.
Pronouns are words which can be used in place of nouns in a sentence. For example:
William took the ball and then William kicked the ball.
becomes, with pronouns:
William took the ball and then he kicked it.
For more, see Pronouns in English Grammar.
Personal Pronouns are a subset of pronouns which stand in for people, places, things and ideas. These include:
I, me, my, you, their, its, themselves, ours...
For more, see Personal Pronouns in English Grammar.
A Collective Noun is a noun used to describe a group of objects (things, people, etc).
For example, when we talk about collections of people we can use words like:
a group of men
a gang of teenagers
a mob of rioters
a squad of soldiers
For more on this, see Collective Nouns.
A Noun is a major part of speech; a good, general, definition of a noun is that it is something which is used to name an object or thing:
car, door, elephant...
For more, see Nouns in English Grammar.
This article looks at how we talk about Animals in English grammar.
The main issue for learners of English are personal pronouns and animals. Do we talk about an animal as he, she or it?
To begin with, when talking about animals we generally use the personal pronouns it and they:
Where’s the dog? It’s run off again, I think.
The birds are flying south for Winter; they are leaving early this year.
However, if the animal we are referring to is a pet (either our own or belonging to someone else) then we’ll almost always use a gender specific pronoun:
Rover’s been a bad boy! He’s dug up the garden and buried his bone again!
We can also use he or she to refer to any animal (not just pets) when we want to personalize them. That is, when when we want to talk about the animal as an individual with its own character rather than just one of a crowd.
The lion has been out hunting but he returns empty handed.
Look at this mole! Isn’t he so cute?
Many animals – especially those which are so-called ‘working’ animals (i.e. on a farm) – have different names for the male and female.
- bull and cow
- cock and hen
- stallion and mare
Professionals (vets or farmers) working with animals will often use this distinction.
However the general public may sometimes use a more generic term. For example, most people will talk about a horse rather than a stallion or mare; or talk about a chicken rather than a cock or hen.
If there is no gender specific term for the male or female of an animal, we have to specify it like this:
the male frog
a female newt
In English there are special terms for groups of animals called collective nouns. This dates back to the great hunting tradition of England from the Middle Ages onwards. These words are often evocative and poetic.
Some examples include:
- A sedge of cranes
- A convocation of eagles
- A flight of swallows
See the main article,