In grammar a Verb Tense is a form of a verb used to indicate roughly the time when the action described by the verb takes place. Here we talk about 3 basic tenses: Past, Present and Future. (Some people talk about more than 3, however.)
Compare this with Verb Form which is the form of a verb in a particular tense, e.g. present simple, present continuous, etc.
For more, see Verb Tenses & Forms in English Grammar.
Verbs tell us about an action; they are sometimes called doing words or action words. Verbs describe what is happening:
run, walk, read, talk
For more, see Verbs in English Grammar,
A Noun is a major part of speech; a good, general, definition of a noun is that it is something which is used to name an object or thing:
car, door, elephant...
For more, see Nouns in English Grammar.
Parts of Speech (often abbreviated to PoS and sometimes known as Word Classes) are the different categories of words in English. They refer to the way in which those words are used grammatically.
Common PoS include adjectives, nouns, verbs, adverbs and so on.
For more on this, see Parts of Speech in English Grammar.
A Conditional is a kind of sentence which uses a word such as if... and talks about situations which are not real and imagines what might happen.
If they want, I can make the tea.
If you ask me, it's a stupid idea!
For more, see Conditionals in English Grammar.
Adverbs tell us more about nouns or verbs, etc.
Adverbs of Degree tell us how much: Is there enough wine?
Adverbs of Frequency tell us how often: I never eat meat.
Adverbs of Time tell us when: I saw him last Sunday.
Adverbs of Manner tell us how: She dances badly.
Adverbs of Place to tell us where: I saw him at the cinema.
For more, see Adverbs in English Grammar.
An Adjective is a word we use to describe a noun:
big, red, boring book
For more, see Adjectives in English Grammar.
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