Prepositions of Place are used to describe where something or someone is...
in, on, at, by, behind, over...
and so on.
The 3 most commonly used prepositions of place are at, in and on.
For ESL students prepositions of place (in fact, all prepositions) can be awkward to learn because there are no definite patterns or rules telling them which preposition to use under which circumstances. However, as a very general rule, we can use these 3 prepositions thus:
AT is used in relation to a specific place:
I'll meet you at the cinema.
The car ran out of gas at the intersection.
IN is used in relation to enclosed spaces:
The keys are in my pocket.
Put them in the drawer.
ON is used in relation to surfaces:
Don't put your feet on the sofa.
I left the paper on the table.
Having said that, there are plenty of exceptions to these vague rules!
This is a list of all other prepositions of place and how they're used.
|above||higher than||There's a spider dangling above your head!|
|across||from one side to the other||The chicken walked across the road.|
|after||following||I ran after the thief but he got away.|
|against||touching; alongside||She came up against a problem.|
|along||from one point to another following a line||We drove along the highway.|
|alongside||at the side of||The police drove up alongside our truck.|
|surrounded by; in the middle of||She sat among the flowers and wept.|
|around||surrounded by; encircling||He put his arms around her.|
|behind||at the back of something||The boss was standing behind me while I was complaining about him.|
|below||lower than||There was a fifty meter drop below me!|
|beside||next to||Come and stand beside me when I accept the award.|
|between||in the middle of two or more||I was stuck between a fire truck and a tractor!|
|by||next to somebody or something||Stand by my side.|
|close to||near to||She stood close to the door so she could get away early.|
|down||moving from higher to lower||They tripped and fell down the stairs.|
|from||showing where something/someone starts||They left from London early this morning.|
|in front of||opposite of behind; further forward but close||She stood in front of the fire to get warm.|
|inside||be on the inner part of something or someone||It's cold outside, come inside out the snow!|
|into||move inside||They came into the room laughing.|
|near||in close proximity to||We stood close together to keep warm.|
|next to||immediately adjacent to||Number 7 stands next to number 9 on this street.|
|off||move away from||Get off me!|
|onto||move on something||The cat climbed onto the table.|
|opposite||on the other side, often facing the other direction||She stood on the opposite side of the room and smiled at me.|
|out of||leaving from inside||I took the cake out of the box.|
|outside||externally; opposite of inside||We stood outside his house and rang the bell.|
|over||covering something/someone or above||The ball flew over my head and only just missed me!|
|past||on or to the other side||I walked past the church but didn't go in.|
|round||move in a circular movement||The dog walked round and round the garden.|
|through||from one side to the other, inside||He climbed in through the open window.|
|towards||in the direction of||Go towards the shops and turn left at the church.|
|under||below or beneath||She stood under the tree to keep out the rain.|
|up||towards a higher place||The rocket went up and out of sight.|
There are, as you can see, a fair number of prepositions of place so it's not useful to teach them all in one go. Especially as there are plenty of exceptions to the general rules above.
In class deal with just a couple at a time as they arise. Since prepositions of place are very physical, you can use plenty of diagrams and drawings and, of course, play games with the location of articles in the room itself.
Prepositions in English Grammar - a general look at different prepositions in English