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Irregular Verbs in English

Irregular Verbs are those verbs‏‎ which do not follow the normal rules of conjugation‏‎ in English‏‎.

In English, most verbs follow this pattern and are regular:

infinitive past form past participle‏‎
walk walked walked

As you can see, they add an -ed to the end of the infinitive. Note that a verb like marry is also classed as regular even though the spelling changes slightly:

marry – married – married

However, irregular verbs do not always add -ed to the end and may have very different forms. Here is a full list of English irregular verbs showing any variations from the regular formation.

Infinitive Past Form Past Participle
Notes
abide abided/abode abided/abode
arise arose arisin
awake awakened/awoke awakened/awoken/awaked
backslide backslid backslidden/backslid
be was/were been
bear bore born/borne
beat beat beaten/beat
become became become
befall befell befallen
beget begot/begat begotten begat’ is preferred past tense in the King James Bible
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
beseech beseeched beseeched/besought
beset beset beset
bet bet bet
bid bid bid in cards or an auction
bid bid/bade bidden say farewell
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast/broadcasted broadcast/broadcasted
browbeat browbeat browbeaten/browbeat
build built built
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
burst burst burst
bust busted/bust busted/bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
chide chided/chid chided/chidden
choose chose chosen
cleave clove/cleft/cleaved cloven/cleft/cleaved
cling clung clung
clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crossbreed crossbred crossbred
crow crowed/crew crowed
cut cut cut
daydream daydreamed/daydreamt daydreamed/daydreamt
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
disprove disproved disproved/disproven
dive dived/dove dived
‘dove’ is AmE
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forego/forgo forwent forgone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
fret fret/fretted fretted
frostbite frostbit frostbitten
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid
get got got/gotten
gird girt/girded girt/girded
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
handfeed handfed handfed
handwrite handwritten handwritten
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hew hewed hewn
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held hidden
hurt hurt hurt
inbreed inbred inbred
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input/inputted input/inputted
interbreed interbred interbred
interweave interwove/interweaved interwove/interweaved
interwind interwound interwound
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built
keep kept kept
kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled
knit knit/knitted knit/knitted
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned/leant leaned/leant
leap leaped/leapt leaped/leapt
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
miscast miscast miscast
misdeal misdealt misdealt
misdo misdid misdone
mishear misheard misheard
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
mislearn mislearnt/mislearned mislearnt/mislearned
misread misread misread
misspell misspelt misspelt
mistake mistook mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
mow mowed mown
offset offset offset
outbid outbid outbid
outdo outdid outdone
outdrink outdrank outdrunk
outgrow outgrew outgrown
outrun outran outrun
outsell outsold outsold
outshine outshone outshone
outspend outspent outspent
outthink outthought outthought
overbid overbid overbid
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overeat overate overeaten
overhang overhung overhung
overhear overheard overheard
overlay overlaid overlaid
override overrode overridden
overrun overran overrun
oversee oversaw overseen
oversell oversold oversold
overshoot overshot overshot
oversleep overslept overslept
overtake overtook overtaken
overthrow overthrew overthrown
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded/pled pleaded/pled
prepay prepaid prepaid
preset preset preset
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proved/proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
recast recast recast
redo redid redid
refit refit refit
remake remade remade
repay repaid repaid
rerun reran rerun
resell resold resold
reset reset reset
rethink rethought
rewind rewound rewound
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaven
shear sheared shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shit shat/shit shat/shit
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelt smelt
smite smote smitten
sneak snuck/sneaked snuck/sneaked
sow sowed sown
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spell spelt spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilt spilt
spin span spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spoil spoilt spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strew strewed strewn
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
unbind unbound unbound
undergo underwent undergone
understand understood understood
undertake undertake undertook
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
unwind unwound unwound
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
wed wed wed
weep wept wept
wet wet wet
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wreak wrought wrought
write wrote written

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